Acne is a common condition that causes blocked pores, pimples, cysts and other lesions on the skin of the face, neck, chest, back, shoulders and upper arms. Although teenagers are often affected, adults of any age can suffer from acne. There are several effective treatment methods that improve the skin's appearance and prevent future breakouts.
Causes of Acne
Acne develops when pores become clogged, either from an overproduction of oil, a buildup of bacteria or a shedding of dead skin cells. When oil, bacteria or dead skin cells build up in the hair follicle, they form a soft plug that forces the follicle wall to bulge and protrude from the skin, causing a lesion. The cause of excess oil production is unknown, but is believed to involve a combination of several factors, including hormones, bacteria, heredity and, in some cases, the use of certain medications.
Symptoms of Acne
Although they can appear anywhere, symptoms of acne usually appear on the face, neck, shoulders, back or chest. Symptoms of acne may include the following:
These symptoms can come and go, and may flare up at certain times as a result of hormonal or environmental triggers such as pregnancy, menstrual periods, high levels of humidity, using oily cosmetics or hair products, and taking certain medications. Severe cases of acne may cause scarring, which can have a damaging emotional effect on the sufferer.
Treatment methods for acne aim to reduce oil production and increase the speed of skin-cell turnover to prevent new blemishes from developing. Acne treatment also focuses on reducing inflammation to help treat current symptoms. Treatment may include a combination of topical creams and ointments, and prescription medications that include antibiotics.
It may take up to 8 weeks before results from treatment are apparent, and acne may get worse before getting better.
Although acne cannot always be prevented, there are certain ways to reduce the risk of breakouts. They include the following:
- Avoiding heavy or oily cosmetics
- Removing makeup before going to bed
- Using mild cleansers
- Avoiding sun exposure
- Avoiding constant touching of the skin
Patients should also avoid picking or squeezing blemishes, and should be aware of anything that comes in contact with the affected area, because it may contain unwanted bacteria.